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Theophylact finished his History in ca. He is often compared to George of Pisidia or the author of the Chronicon Paschale, for having composed substantial parts of his narrative in the optimistic mood of the late s, after Heraclius' triumph Olajos , ; Olajos , 41; Olajos , 11; Whitby , It has also been suggested that, since his History focuses exclusively on the Balkans and the eastern front, Theophylact's goal was to explain the events of in the light of Emperor Maurice's policies in the Balkans and the East Curta , Beginning with Book VI of his work, he relied on what Hans Wilhelm Haussig once called the Feldzugsjournal, a campaign diary written at some point after Phocas' accession of by a participant in Priscus' and Peter's campaigns against the Slavs and the Avars Haussig ; for Theophylact's use of the campaign diary, see Curta , Some have even suggested that for the chapters VIII 5.
Indeed, Godwin is the one who "crossed the river [Danube], destroyed hordes of enemies in the jaws of the sword, secured a large body of captives, and acquired great glory" Theophylact Simocatta ; see Olajos , In my opinion, the answer must be negative for a variety of reasons. First, this is the only instance of Sklavinia not only in the chapters believed to have been based on interviews with Godwin, but also in the entire work of Theophylact. Irrespective of the bombastic style of his narrative, Theophylact's choice of a periphrasis at this point cannot be just as a way to avoid repetition of the word Sklavinia Why then did he use the word at VIII 5.
An attentive examination of the entire passage covering the events of the summer of , up to the order of the emperor to his troops to spend the winter in the lands of the Slavs VIII to VIII 6. On one hand, Peter's troops under the command of Godwin crossed the river against the Slavs, taking large numbers of captives with which the Romans wanted to return to the Roman provinces in the Balkans, but "Godwin for a time prevented them from doing this" Whitby and Whitby Meanwhile, the qagan of the Avars dispatched an army "to destroy the nation of the Antes, which was in fact allied to t he Romans" Whitby and Whitby It remains unclear whether the Avar army moved along the left or the right bank of the river Danube.
Given that Godwin and his troops were still north of the river, it is possible that the Avars moved along the southern bank, through what was theoretically Roman territory. That much results from the description of the third concomitant movement of people: "In the course of these very events, large numbers defected from the Avars and hastened to desert to the emperor" Whi tby and Whitby Furthermore, the expedition of the Avars against the Antes is specifically attributed to the Chagan's reaction to the "Roman incursions" Whitby and Whitby In other words, in response to the Roman attacks on the Slavs, the Avars decided to attack the traditional allies of the Romans farther to the east.
The Chagan regarded the Slavs north of the Lower Danube as his subjects, even if he had previously agreed to treat the Danube "as intermedium mesites between Romans and Avars" and to allow the Romans "to cross the river against the Sclavenes" From a Roman point of view, therefore, a distinction needed to be made between those barbarian lands which were under the direct rule of the Chagan, and the territory which, though theoretically under Avar rule at least in the eyes of the Chagan , was effectively controlled by more or less independent Slavs.
Both were on the other side of the Danube, in contrast to the "land of the Romans" to the south from that river. In the context of the account of the events of the summer of , Theophylact needed something to draw a sharp distinction between them. It was from the lands under the direct rule of the Chagan that those Avars came, who would later defect to the Romans.
Conversely, it was against the territories controlled by independent Slavs that the Roman troops moved under the command of Godwin. Godwin's operations of , however, were directed only against one of those hordes, namely that from Sklavinia, "the territory of the Sclavenes" in which the Roman troops would soon be ordered to spend the winter.
Instead of an attributive genitive, such as commonly used in his work to refer to the quality of being Slavic, Theophylact invented a name for the land of the Slavs derived from the very name he used for them in the History. The territorial meaning of the word was linked to, and in fact limited by the specific circumstances described in the paragraph in which it was used. Theophylact did not employ any other, similar names of barbarian territories or lands derived from ethnic names.
There is no Avaria and no Tourkia in Theophylact's History. That there is instead a Sklavinia is largely due to his peculiar style and narrative strategies. It may well be that Theophylact did not in fact invent the word, and that the term was already used occasionally at the time to refer loosely to the lands inhabited by Slavs. However, it is only in the early ninth century that the territorial meaning was firmly established, thus allowing a shift towards a political interpretation, as the "lands of the Slavs" began to move inside the Empire.
Notes 1 The terminus post quem non for the composition of Hugeburc's work is the date of her death, Bischoff ; Gottschaler ; Leonardi For Willibald's pilgrimage, see Guth , and McCormick According to Chrysos , "Sclavinia" Slawinia is an adjective modifying the noun terra. However, there is no grammatical case concord between dative terrae and nominative Slawinia. Slawinia is therefore not an adjective, but a noun, and a more accurate translation of in Slawinia terrae is "in the land called Sclavinia".
For the political meaning of the word, as employed by Ignatius, see Georgiev It remains unclear what the corresponding readings are in the other manuscripts of the Miracles of St. At any rate, Chrysos is wrong when claiming that is not attested at Sklabenion all in the manuscript tradition of the Miracula". Clement of Ochrid II 7, ed. Ilia Iliev, in Byzantinobulgarica 9 , p. For Peiragastus, see Curta , and In Theophylact's mind, the river clearly separates the "land of the Slavs barbarians " from the "land of the Romans.
They are also not said to have crossed the Danube on ferry boats, as Peter's troops had just done in the opposite direction. For the Avar expedition against the Antes, see Litavrin , See also Curta , Hence, Greece tried to first find new alliances against the Turkey, and then later, new ways of working together with Turkey in place of conflicting. In comparative terms both countries have allocated a greater share of their national income to defense.
This plan made Turkey one of the most active buyers of weapons in the world after the post-Cold War era. Accordingly, the efficient and effective allocation and use of scarce defense resources and budget should be the main objective for the military establishment.
World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers Defense spending and investment in the United States. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 27 1 , Economic consequences of a rise in defense spending after September 11, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 28 2 , Defense spending and economic growth.
Defence Economics, 2 1 , Ball, N. Defense and development: A critique of the Benoit study. Defense and growth in developing countries. Lexington: Mass Lexington Books. Benoit, E. Growth and defense in developing countries. Military expenditures and economic growth in less developed countries: An augmented model and further evidence.
Survey and review of the defense economics literature on Greece and Turkey. Brzoska, M. The reporting of military expenditures. Journal of Peace Research, 18 3 , Chowdhury, A. A causal analysis of defense spending and economic growth. Retrieved December 26, , from Conetta, C. PDA Publications. The Cost of the War in Iraq. Economics for Peace and Security. Retrieved December 30, , from Dakurah, A.
Defense spending and economic growth in developing countries: A causality analysis. Economic development and defense expenditure. Military expenditure and growth in less developed countries. The demand for military spending in developing countries: A dynamic panel analysis.
Defence and Peace Economics, 14 6 , Middle East politics: Overview of defense spending. Retrieved January 1, , from Fein, B. January 3, Unveiling the PKK. Retrieved January 03, , from Georgiou, G. Modeling Greek—Turkish rivalry: An empirical investigation of defence spending dynamics. Journal of Peace Research, 33, Giray, F. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 5 1. Budgetary tradeoff of security expenditures in Turkey.
Defence and Peace Economics, 13 5. Hassan, M. Heo, U. The political economy of defense spending in South Korea. Journal of Peace Research, 33 4 , Heo, U. Modeling the defense-growth relationship around the globe. Defense spending and economic growth in South Korea: The indirect link. Journal of Peace Research, 36 6 , Herrera, R. Statistics on military expenditure in developing countries concepts, methodological problems, and sources. Paris; Washington, D. Military Balance.
Government Finance Statistics. Government unveils economic targets. Does defence expenditure deter economic growth in Turkey? A cointegration analysis. Defence and Peace Economics, 15 3 , Kollias, C. Is there a Greek—Turkish arms-race? The view from Athens. Cyprus journal of economics, Journal of Peace Research, 7 52 , Defence and Peace Economics. Journal of Peace Research, 6 , Is there a Greek—Turkish arms race?
Evidence from cointegration and causality tests. Defence and Peace Economics, 8 , Kwabena, G. Defense spending and economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa: An econometric investigation. Journal of Peace Research, 26 1 , Lebovic, J. Using military spending data: The complexity of simple inference. Journal of Peace Research, 36 6 , Lim, D. Another look at growth and defense in less developed countries. Third-world military expenditure and arms production.
Looney, R. Military expenditures and socio-economic development in Africa: A summary of recent empirical research. Impact of arms production on income distribution and growth in the third world. Profiles of current Latin American arms producers. International Organization, 40 3 , Looney, R. Defense expenditures, external public debt and growth in developing countries.
Journal of Peace Research, 23 4 , Nicholson, W. Intermediate microeconomics and its applications Seventh ed. The Dryden Press. Asymmetric effects of military expenditure between Turkey and Greece. The defence growth relation: Evidence from Turkey. Brauer and K. Amsterdam Ed. Harwood Academic. Poot, J. A synthesis of empirical research on the impact of government on long-run growth.
Retrieved January 2, from Ram, R. Government size and economic growth: A new framework and some evidence from cross-section and time-series data. Country survey X: Defence spending in Turkey. Defence and Peace Economics, 8 4 , Sezgin, S. A causal analysis of Turkish defence-growth relationships.
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