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Investing stock market terms definitions

investing stock market terms definitions

The term stock market refers to several exchanges in which shares of publicly held companies are bought and sold. Such financial activities are conducted. Basic Stock Market terms: · Buy – This means buying shares or taking a position in a company. · Sell – Getting rid of the shares as you have. NASDAQ. A US stock exchange specialising in the shares of technology companies. Read more → · NYSE. The. FOREX CHARTS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

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Futures contract are traded in lot sizes having different expiry dates and set prices that are known to the investor at the time of the contract itself. There are many types of futures contracts, such as commodity futures, stock futures, currency futures , etc. Recommended reading: A detailed guide on future contracts Options Options are financial contracts that provide the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy or sell the underlying asset at a predetermined price on or before the maturity date.

Options are traded in lots. The specified price is known as the strike price. The amount paid in exchange for acquiring the right to buy or sell the underlying asset is known as option premium. In case the buyer does not exercise this right, his loss is limited to the option premium, he has paid. In case of the seller, the potential losses that can be incurred by him are limitless; however, the profit is limited to the option premium paid by the buyer in case the buyer refuses to exercise his right.

There are two types of options: Call options and Put options. Recommended reading: A detailed guide on options Call Option A call option gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy an underlying asset at the strike price on or before the expiry date. The buyer of a call option speculates that the market is bullish, and the prices of the underlying asset will increase. If at the expiry date, the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price, the buyer refuses to exercise his right.

His loss is limited to the premium paid. If the price of the underlying asset is above the strike price, the profit is the current stock price minus the strike price, multiplied by the lot size, with the premium deducted as a cost of the call option. Put Option A put option gives the buyer the right but not the obligation to sell an underlying asset at the strike price on or before the maturity date.

The buyer of the put option expects the price of the underlying asset to go down. If the price of the underlying asset is below the strike price, the gain is the difference between the strike price and current price of the stock, multiplied by the lot size.

In case the strike price is above the stock price, the buyer loses the premium paid. Open Interest Open interest refers to the total number of outstanding derivative contracts that are yet to be settled. From the time the buyer and seller initiate the contract until the counter-party closes it, the contract is termed to be open. Open-interest provides an accurate picture of the derivatives trading activity and whether the money rolling in the derivative market is rising or declining.

Recommended reading: What is open interest and how to check open interest? Annual Report Annual Report is the financial assessment of the company. It provides a sneak peek at the financial condition and operations of the company.

Annual report is intended to provide shareholders with in-depth knowledge of various parameters that constitute the performance of the company in a specified financial year. The annual report is scrutinised by investors to determine the future potential of the company based on past performance.

It can be described as the resume of the company with reference to the previous financial year. Recommended reading: What is annual report and how to check annual reports? Arbitrage Arbitrage is the simultaneous purchase and sale of the same securities in different markets to benefit from the momentary price variations prevailing in different markets.

Arbitrage ensures that the minor price differences in the same securities in different markets are eliminated, leading to uniformed prices across market exchanges. Averaging down Averaging down is carried out when the investor acquires more stock as the price of the stock steadily declines after the initial purchase, resulting in lower average cost per share. It is undertaken by an investor when he feels that the share is trading lower than the perceived value, and the general consensus of the market is wrong.

Bear Market Bear Market is the industry-specific jargon which indicates a downward trend in the overall condition of the market. It means that the cumulative market prices of the stocks listed on the stock market are declining. It means that the market is on an upward spiral. It means that the aggregate market prices of the stocks are rising. Recommended reading: What is bull and bear market?

Active Return Active Return refers to the excess returns generated by the portfolio as compared to the benchmark, index or market as a whole. Volatility Volatility refers to the degree or the extent in fluctuation in the prices of the stock. Highly volatile stock witness abnormal highs and lows during the trading session, while low volatile stocks experience ups and downs to a lesser degree. Investing in highly volatile stocks can result in enormous gains or tremendous losses.

Beta Beta measures the volatility in the prices of the stock as compared to the overall movement of the market.. If the stock has a beta value of 2, it means for every 1 point change in the entire market, the prices of the stock change by 2 points. So if the stock market declines by 1 point, the price of the stock will decrease by 2 points and vice-versa. The beta is an important measurement to gauge the risk a stock is adding to a portfolio. High beta stocks are risky as they are more volatile to the swings of the market; however, there is a higher return potential.

Similarly, low beta stock presents a lower risk but correspondingly lower returns as well. Alpha Alpha is the relative return on investment as compared to the overall market, or the benchmark index. Alpha shows how well or poorly a stock has performed in comparison to the overall market. Hence, Alpha is a precise measurement of performance of a stock independent of the market movements. Alpha tracks the historical active return of an investment.

Blue Chip Stocks Blue Chip stocks belong to the top well-established companies which have high market capitalisation with an array of high-quality, widely accepted products and services. These companies often have a history of providing hefty dividends to their shareholders and are appreciated for their sound and effective management practices.

Blue chip stocks have an envious record of stable and reliable growth in the times of adverse market conditions and economic downturns. They represent a significant chunk in the stock market, and the movement in the prices of these stock can have outsized ramifications on the overall trend of the market. Broker The broker is an intermediary between the stock exchange and the investors or traders who facilitate the transfer of funds and shares in exchange for a commission.

A broker is a middleman that facilitates the trade between the buyers and sellers. A broker can also refer to a firm when it acts as an agent of the investors and arranges transaction between the buyers and sellers. The firm charges specific fees for these services. Bid The bid is the maximum amount a buyer is willing to pay to acquire a stock. A buyer may purchase stock only if the price does not exceed the bid price he has placed.

Ask Ask is the minimum amount a holder of a security is willing to sell for. A seller will sell the security only if the bid price matches or exceeds the ask price. Close The close refers to the time when all the trading and investing activities ceases.

The closing time of the stock markets in India is 3. Recommended reading: 40 commonly used trading terms you must know Absolute Returns Absolute Return is simply the rate of return on an investment attained over a specific period. It basically measures the gain earned, and loss suffered expressed as a percentage over the initial investment over a particular period. Recommended watch: How to calculate returns on Mutual funds?

CAGR will help you evaluate the yearly return on an investment compounded annually throughout the duration of the investment. CAGR considers the time value of money as opposed to absolute returns. Internal Rate of Return Internal Rate of Return is the rate at which the future cash flows are discounted to arrive at the net present value of 0.

The Internal rate of returns assumes that the cash flows are periodic increments to an investment. It is an important metric to estimate the profitability of potential investments. Extended Internal Rate of Return XIRR Extended Internal Rate is the internal rate of return on total investment in case of inconsistent cash flows because of erratic increments and redemptions occurring throughout the investment lifespan. XIRR is applicable when there are cluttered and multiple transactions occurring at various times spread over a period of time.

Hence, External Internal Rate of Returns reflects the real-life scenarios as compared to Internal Rate of Return when it comes to mutual funds. Dividend A dividend is an amount distributed to the shareholders of the company, in proportion to the shares held by them. However, the distribution of dividends is not guaranteed; a company can keep the entire profit to itself as retained earnings.

The investor may choose to reinvest the dividends and increase his shareholdings in the company or may choose to receive it in cash. Also, a company may still distribute dividends even if it has not made any profits just to maintain the established and steady record of making periodic dividend payments. Recommended reading: What is dividend? Index Stock Market Index typically tracks the aggregated movement in the prices of all the shares listed in the stock market as compared to the previous day prices to determine the market performance.

It may also track the cumulative movement in the prices compared to the past prices of a hypothetical portfolio of a basket of securities belonging to a particular industry or collated and grouped based on market capitalisation. It serves as an indicator of changes in the stock market.

The index serves as a benchmark for evaluating the active returns of a portfolio. It serves as a reference against which to assess the performance of a portfolio. Initial Public Offering Initial Public offering is the initial offering or sale of securities to the public. Here the owners or private investors sell their ownership in the company and offer it for sale to the public.

IPO is the route for the companies to raise capital for future growth and development. Initial Public Offering is one of the main reasons for the existence of the stock market. Recommended reading: Detailed guide on IPO Leverage Leverage in the stock market means borrowing capital to invest in more shares than one is financially capable of buying with the singular motive to boost profits.

Leverage means amplification of comparatively smaller investment force into a correspondingly greater profit. Leverage can result in exponential gains; however, it can also result in massive losses. Explore leverage products provided by Samco by clicking here. Liability - A liability is the opposite of an asset. It is a debt or debt carrying obligation that you or a company owes someone else.

An example is when a business owns a warehouse and owes more than the warehouse is worth. Market Correction - A market correction is when the prices of a stock or an entire sector of the market drops rapidly to "correct" a stock price where it should be. Moving Average - What is moving average? A moving average is the average price of a stock over a period of time.

Based on the amount of time considered between prices determines a different price average trend. Over Bought - Over bought is a term used when a stock price becomes so expensive for what it's worth , that shareholders want to sell it to make a profit. Usually these shareholders bought it when it was cheap and have now held on to it long enough to make a profit when they sell.

Over Sold - Over sold is a term used when a stock price becomes so cheap for what it's worth , that shareholders want to buy it because it is so cheap. It's like if a product goes on sale at the store. Usually these shareholders want to buy in while the price is low so they can wait for it to go up and make a profit. Resistance - Resistance is the high point at which a stock can reach based on price, supply, and demand of the stock.

See Supply for link to additional information. Return on Investment - You may have heard "you want to make the most return on your investment", but do you really understand what that means? Return on Investment or ROI is how much money you make from the money you put into an investment. If you put little to no money into a major purchase and make twice as much money with a resale, then you double your ROI.

Shareholder Equity - Shareholder equity is the money attributable to its shareholders, otherwise known as its "net assets". This is because it is equivalent to a company's total assets less its liabilities. Stock Chart - A stock chart is a very valuable tool for a stock investor that provides a price track of a stock over a period of time.

Stock Index - A stock index is a sort of thermometer for the market generally utilized by an investor to gauge how the stock market is trending as a whole. Stock Market Crash - A stock market crash is a significant unanticipated drop in price across the board for most securities. After the crash, the market will continue to drop slowly until investors start gaining confidence again.

Stock Market Quote - A stock market quote is a snapshot of a stocks price and various other information at a given time. During the trading day, this information is regularly updated. Stock Sectors - Stock sectors are smaller sections of a stock index that encompass a group of stocks that fit under that section. For example, all of the oil stocks are held in the Energy Sector.

Stock Split - A stock split is when the company want to increase or decrease the number of outstanding shares. There is no financial benefit to a split. The stock price adjusts to a value equal to the share split. Stock Ticker - A stock ticker is a scrolling bar that steams stock price information throughout the trading period. At the bottom of a stock market TV channel, a stock ticker generally scrolls at the bottom of the screen with the current trading price of the stock and if it is up or down from the beginning of the trading day.

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Business English Vocabulary: The Stock Market

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Z What is active investing?

Investing stock market terms definitions What is diversification? This activity helps companies raise necessary capital from investors. The higher the sharpe ratio, the better. The investor in a short position will profit if the price of the stock falls. What Is the Stock Market?
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Sauda betting software spread Treasury note - Negotiable medium-term one year to 10 years debt obligations issued by the U. Tracker funds are designed to match, or track, the performance of an index. Morgan Asset Management. Market sentiment: the overall attitude or tone of investors towards a particular investment, or about financial markets as a whole. They are a type of shared investment. Exchange A place where investors and traders buy and sell stocks. Commodities: Product used for commerce that are traded on a separate, authorized commodities platform.
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