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Cryptocurrency data structure

cryptocurrency data structure

The layered structure of the blockchain architecture · Hardware infrastructure layer · Data layer · Network layer · Consensus layer · Application layer. Basically Blockchain is a data structure, just as arrays, list, trees or other data structures that you've learned at school or at work. What is cool about this. In a blockchain, each transaction is stored in one Merkle Tree. So yes, blockchains do have several characteristics in common with a linked list data structure. BETTING ODDS WINNER EURO 2022

When a medical record is generated and signed, it can be written into the blockchain, which provides patients with the proof and confidence that the record cannot be changed. These personal health records could be encoded and stored on the blockchain with a private key, so that they are only accessible by certain individuals, thereby ensuring privacy.

In the case of a property dispute, claims to the property must be reconciled with the public index. This process is not just costly and time-consuming—it is also prone to human error, where each inaccuracy makes tracking property ownership less efficient. Blockchain has the potential to eliminate the need for scanning documents and tracking down physical files in a local recording office. If property ownership is stored and verified on the blockchain, owners can trust that their deed is accurate and permanently recorded.

If a group of people living in such an area is able to leverage blockchain, then transparent and clear time lines of property ownership could be established. Smart Contracts A smart contract is a computer code that can be built into the blockchain to facilitate, verify, or negotiate a contract agreement. Smart contracts operate under a set of conditions to which users agree.

When those conditions are met, the terms of the agreement are automatically carried out. Say, for example, that a potential tenant would like to lease an apartment using a smart contract. The landlord agrees to give the tenant the door code to the apartment as soon as the tenant pays the security deposit. Both the tenant and the landlord would send their respective portions of the deal to the smart contract, which would hold onto and automatically exchange the door code for the security deposit on the date when the lease begins.

This would eliminate the fees and processes typically associated with the use of a notary, a third-party mediator, or attorneys. Supply Chains As in the IBM Food Trust example, suppliers can use blockchain to record the origins of materials that they have purchased. Voting As mentioned above, blockchain could be used to facilitate a modern voting system. Voting with blockchain carries the potential to eliminate election fraud and boost voter turnout, as was tested in the November midterm elections in West Virginia.

Using blockchain in this way would make votes nearly impossible to tamper with. The blockchain protocol would also maintain transparency in the electoral process, reducing the personnel needed to conduct an election and providing officials with nearly instant results. This would eliminate the need for recounts or any real concern that fraud might threaten the election.

From greater user privacy and heightened security to lower processing fees and fewer errors, blockchain technology may very well see applications beyond those outlined above. But there are also some disadvantages. Pros Improved accuracy by removing human involvement in verification Cost reductions by eliminating third-party verification Decentralization makes it harder to tamper with Transactions are secure, private, and efficient Transparent technology Provides a banking alternative and a way to secure personal information for citizens of countries with unstable or underdeveloped governments Cons Significant technology cost associated with mining bitcoin Low transactions per second History of use in illicit activities, such as on the dark web Regulation varies by jurisdiction and remains uncertain Data storage limitations Benefits of Blockchains Accuracy of the Chain Transactions on the blockchain network are approved by a network of thousands of computers.

This removes almost all human involvement in the verification process, resulting in less human error and an accurate record of information. Even if a computer on the network were to make a computational mistake, the error would only be made to one copy of the blockchain. Cost Reductions Typically, consumers pay a bank to verify a transaction, a notary to sign a document, or a minister to perform a marriage.

Blockchain eliminates the need for third-party verification—and, with it, their associated costs. For example, business owners incur a small fee whenever they accept payments using credit cards, because banks and payment-processing companies have to process those transactions.

Bitcoin, on the other hand, does not have a central authority and has limited transaction fees. Decentralization Blockchain does not store any of its information in a central location. Instead, the blockchain is copied and spread across a network of computers. Whenever a new block is added to the blockchain, every computer on the network updates its blockchain to reflect the change.

By spreading that information across a network, rather than storing it in one central database, blockchain becomes more difficult to tamper with. If a copy of the blockchain fell into the hands of a hacker, only a single copy of the information, rather than the entire network, would be compromised. Efficient Transactions Transactions placed through a central authority can take up to a few days to settle. If you attempt to deposit a check on Friday evening, for example, you may not actually see funds in your account until Monday morning.

Whereas financial institutions operate during business hours, usually five days a week, blockchain is working 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and days a year. Transactions can be completed in as little as 10 minutes and can be considered secure after just a few hours.

This is particularly useful for cross-border trades, which usually take much longer because of time zone issues and the fact that all parties must confirm payment processing. Although users can access details about transactions, they cannot access identifying information about the users making those transactions.

It is a common misperception that blockchain networks like bitcoin are anonymous, when in fact they are only confidential. When a user makes a public transaction, their unique code—called a public key, as mentioned earlier—is recorded on the blockchain. Their personal information is not. Secure Transactions Once a transaction is recorded, its authenticity must be verified by the blockchain network. Thousands of computers on the blockchain rush to confirm that the details of the purchase are correct.

After a computer has validated the transaction, it is added to the blockchain block. Each block on the blockchain contains its own unique hash, along with the unique hash of the block before it. This discrepancy makes it extremely difficult for information on the blockchain to be changed without notice.

Transparency Most blockchains are entirely open-source software. This means that anyone and everyone can view its code. This gives auditors the ability to review cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin for security. Because of this, anyone can suggest changes or upgrades to the system. If a majority of the network users agree that the new version of the code with the upgrade is sound and worthwhile, then Bitcoin can be updated. Banking the Unbanked Perhaps the most profound facet of blockchain and Bitcoin is the ability for anyone, regardless of ethnicity, gender, or cultural background, to use it.

According to The World Bank, an estimated 1. Nearly all of these individuals live in developing countries, where the economy is in its infancy and entirely dependent on cash. These people often earn a little money that is paid in physical cash. They then need to store this physical cash in hidden locations in their homes or other places of living, leaving them subject to robbery or unnecessary violence. Keys to a bitcoin wallet can be stored on a piece of paper, a cheap cell phone, or even memorized if necessary.

For most people, it is likely that these options are more easily hidden than a small pile of cash under a mattress. Blockchains of the future are also looking for solutions to not only be a unit of account for wealth storage but also to store medical records, property rights, and a variety of other legal contracts. Drawbacks of Blockchains Technology Cost Although blockchain can save users money on transaction fees, the technology is far from free.

For example, the PoW system which the bitcoin network uses to validate transactions, consumes vast amounts of computational power. In the real world, the power from the millions of computers on the bitcoin network is close to what Norway and Ukraine consume annually. Despite the costs of mining bitcoin, users continue to drive up their electricity bills to validate transactions on the blockchain. When it comes to blockchains that do not use cryptocurrency, however, miners will need to be paid or otherwise incentivized to validate transactions.

Some solutions to these issues are beginning to arise. For example, bitcoin-mining farms have been set up to use solar power, excess natural gas from fracking sites, or power from wind farms. Speed and Data Inefficiency Bitcoin is a perfect case study for the possible inefficiencies of blockchain. Although other cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum perform better than bitcoin, they are still limited by blockchain.

Legacy brand Visa, for context, can process 65, TPS. Solutions to this issue have been in development for years. There are currently blockchains that are boasting more than 30, TPS. Ethereum's merge between its main net and beacon chain Sep. This will increase the network participation, reduce congestion, and increase transaction speeds. The other issue is that each block can only hold so much data. The block size debate has been, and continues to be, one of the most pressing issues for the scalability of blockchains going forward.

Illegal Activity While confidentiality on the blockchain network protects users from hacks and preserves privacy, it also allows for illegal trading and activity on the blockchain network. The most cited example of blockchain being used for illicit transactions is probably the Silk Road , an online dark web illegal-drug and money laundering marketplace operating from February until October , when it was shut down by the FBI.

The dark web allows users to buy and sell illegal goods without being tracked by using the Tor Browser and make illegal purchases in Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. Current U. This system can be seen as both a pro and a con. It gives anyone access to financial accounts but also allows criminals to more easily transact. Many have argued that the good uses of crypto, like banking the unbanked world, outweigh the bad uses of cryptocurrency, especially when most illegal activity is still accomplished through untraceable cash.

While Bitcoin had been used early on for such purposes, its transparent nature and maturity as a financial asset has actually seen illegal activity migrate to other cryptocurrencies such as Monero and Dash. Today, illegal activity accounts for only a very small fraction of all Bitcoin transactions.

Regulation Many in the crypto space have expressed concerns about government regulation over cryptocurrencies. While it is getting increasingly difficult and near impossible to end something like Bitcoin as its decentralized network grows, governments could theoretically make it illegal to own cryptocurrencies or participate in their networks. This concern has grown smaller over time, as large companies like PayPal begin to allow the ownership and use of cryptocurrencies on its platform.

What Is a Blockchain in Simple Terms? Simply put, a blockchain is a shared database or ledger. Pieces of data are stored in data structures known as blocks, and each node of the network has an exact replica of the entire database. Security is ensured since if somebody tries to edit or delete an entry in one copy of the ledger, the majority will not reflect this change and it will be rejected. How Many Blockchains Are There? The number of live blockchains is growing every day at an ever-increasing pace.

As of , there are more than 10, active cryptocurrencies based on blockchain, with several hundred more non-cryptocurrency blockchains. A public blockchain, also known as an open or permissionless blockchain, is one where anybody can join the network freely and establish a node.

Because of their open nature, these blockchains must be secured with cryptography and a consensus system like proof of work PoW. A private or permissioned blockchain, on the other hand, requires each node to be approved before joining. Because nodes are considered to be trusted, the layers of security do not need to be as robust.

What Is a Blockchain Platform? A blockchain platform allows users and developers to create novel uses on top of an existing blockchain infrastructure. One example is Ethereum , which has a native cryptocurrency known as ether ETH. But the Ethereum blockchain also allows the creation of smart contracts and programmable tokens used in initial coin offerings ICOs , and non-fungible tokens NFTs.

These are all built up around the Ethereum infrastructure and secured by nodes on the Ethereum network. Who Invented Blockchain? Blockchain technology was first outlined in by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta, two mathematicians who wanted to implement a system where document timestamps could not be tampered with. In the late s, Cypherpunk Nick Szabo proposed using a blockchain to secure a digital payments system, known as bit gold which was never implemented. Blockchain Technology Records Transaction in Digital Ledger which is distributed over the Network thus making it incorruptible.

Anything of value like Land Assets, Cars, etc. How Blockchain Technology works? One of the famous use of Blockchain is Bitcoin. The bitcoin is a cryptocurrency and is used to exchange digital assets online. Bitcoin uses cryptographic proof instead of third-party trust for two parties to execute transactions over the internet. Each transaction protects through digital signature.

The data is distributed over Millions of Computers around the world which are connected with the Blockchain. This system allows Notarization of Data as it is present on every Node and is publicly verifiable. A network of nodes: A node is a computer connected to the Blockchain Network. Node gets connected with Blockchain using the client.

Client helps in validating and propagates transaction on to the Blockchain. When a computer connects to the Blockchain, a copy of the Blockchain data gets downloaded into the system and the node comes in sync with the latest block of data on Blockchain. The Node connected to the Blockchain which helps in the execution of a Transaction in return for an incentive is called Miners.

Disadvantages of current transaction system: Cash can only be used in low amount transaction locally. Huge waiting time in the processing of transactions. Need to third party for verification and execution of Transaction make the process complex. If the Central Server like Banks is compromised, whole System is affected including the participants. Organization doing validation charge high process thus making the process expensive. Building trust with Blockchain: Blockchain enhances trust across a business network.

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Bitcoin is considered the cryptocurrency flagship — the coin that launched thousands of coins. According to Statista , as of February of there are more than 10, cryptocurrencies, a 3. Investing in just one Bitcoin is an expensive endeavor compared to other investment vehicles. Litecoin was made to process transactions faster and cheaper than Bitcoin. By tethering the value of the token to the US dollar, USDT provides holders with a stable way to store value and conduct transactions.

These tokens are also pegged to the US dollar, providing holders with a stable way to store value and conduct transactions. The increased demand for stablecoins highlights the need for a reliable store of value in the cryptocurrency market. Interestingly, USDC is not just popular with traders; it is also widely used by corporations.

Smart Contracts These are strings of code that automatically execute a certain task when specific conditions are met. There are two different types of cryptocurrency: coins and tokens. Coins A coin is a cryptocurrency that has its own blockchain, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple.

When someone says they "bought cryptocurrency", they are referring to buying coins. Tokens represent an asset or utility for a specific project and are sold or given to during the first public sale for a project, an Initial Coin Offering ICO , which mirrors an Initial Public Offering in the stock market.

There is another very important distinction with tokens. There are two general types of tokens: utility and security. Utility Token A utility token is intended to only be used to buy products or services from the company or platform that issues them. Security Token A security token is essentially a digital version of financial security that acts as a share of the value of an enterprise, similar to how owning AAPL essentially means you own a chunk of Apple. In other words, security tokens pay dividends, share profits, pay interest or invest in other tokens or assets to generate profits for the token holders.

A digital asset is considered a security token if it meets three criteria: It requires a monetary investment. The collected funding goes to a single enterprise. Investors give their money with the expectation of gaining income derived on the work of the third party. This option takes a lot more time and is generally the most expensive route for issuance. Regulation S: This regulation outlines security offerings from countries outside of the US, which are therefore not subject to the registration requirements of section 5 of the Act.

The creators of the security offering still must follow the security regulations of the country that they plan to solicit investment. This Bitcoin address is linked to whatever exchange or cryptocurrency wallet Steven set up. Alex enters the address in his cryptocurrency exchange or wallet along with the Bitcoin BTC amount — about 0. Steven receives the BTC minus a small fee. According to Bitcoinfees. How is all of this possible? Every node makes sure that: Alex is actually who he is claiming to be.

Anyone who has access to this private key has access to your money. Since the nodes have a copy of the entire ledger of transactions, they can easily check to see if Alex has the money. How Investors Buy or Trade Cryptocurrency Purchasing cryptocurrency has become a user-friendly process in the past year, with popular financial companies such as Robinhood and Square Cash jumping on board.

Here are a few alternative ways that investors currently buy or trade cryptocurrency to help boost your cryptocurrency IQ. Coinbase Coinbase built its reputation as a leader in the cryptocurrency exchange space by drastically simplifying how users buy cryptocurrency. Coinbase has some of the highest exchange fees out of all of the cryptocurrency exchanges, with a 1. Advantages: User-friendly interface, a wide variety of cryptocurrencies available Disadvantages: Limited countries supported — US only Unique features: user-friendly interface and is one of the most popular exchanges online.

Fees: Coinbase charges a flat fee of 1. Coinbase Pro has more advanced and detailed trading charts and graphs, as well as more trading options. Binance Binance is one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges by volume and by users. Binance has hundred of different cryptocurrencies, advanced trading features, and robust trading charts and graphs. Binance charges a 0. Advantages: Low fees, wide variety of cryptocurrencies available Disadvantages: Limited countries supported Unique Features: offers a very large number of cryptocurrencies to trade.

Fees: Binance charges a fee of 0. These features include over-the-counter OTC trading, a fiat gateway, and a cryptocurrency debit card. Fees: HitBTC charges a fee of 0. The fee decreases as the trade volume increases. Supported Countries: Worldwide Advantages: High liquidity, a wide variety of cryptocurrencies available Disadvantages: Does not offer fiat-to-cryptocurrency trading Unique Features: Huobi Pro offers a variety of features that are not available on most other exchanges.

Fees: Huobi Pro charges a fee of 0. What the United States government has been focused on in regards to cryptocurrency has been those laundering money or purchasing illegal substances and services through cryptocurrency, as well as identifying fraudulent ICOs, and collecting taxes. Perhaps the most important and relevant piece of regulatory guidance for average cryptocurrency users is Notice issued by the IRS.

Notice says that cryptocurrency is treated as property for federal tax purposes and falls under general tax principles. Thus, a gain or loss is recognized whenever a specific cryptocurrency is sold or used to purchase goods, services, or other cryptocurrencies i.

Also keep in mind: You must be 18 years or older to purchase cryptocurrency Crypto exchanges must be licensed and registered with the government Crypto assets are not legal tender As someone diving into the cryptocurrency basics, it's important to understand the regulatory climate around cryptocurrency is in a constant state of flux — some details could even change tomorrow — with a few of the largest and most important landmark decisions still ahead of us.

Cryptocurrency Best Practices While cryptocurrency allows anyone to become their own bank, this also comes with some unpleasant realities. No central bank means no customer service, no guaranteed asset protection or FDIC insurance for cryptocurrency amounts, and no representative to call when things go awry.

This leaves your cryptocurrency at serious risk of: Getting hacked by malicious third parties. How a Block Blockchain Block Works A blockchain network witnesses a great deal of transaction activity. When used in cryptocurrency, maintaining a record of these transactions helps the system track how much was or wasn't used and which parties were involved. The transactions made during a given period are recorded into a file called a block, which is the basis of the blockchain network.

A block stores information. There are many pieces of information included within a block, but it doesn't occupy a large amount of storage space. Blocks generally include these elements, but it might vary between different types: Magic number: A number containing specific values that identify that block as part of a particular cryptocurrency's network. Blocksize: Sets the size limit on the block so that only a specific amount of information can be written in it.

Block header: Contains information about the block. Transaction counter: A number that represents how many transactions are stored in the block. Transactions: A list of all of the transactions within a block. The transaction element is the largest because it contains the most information. It is followed in storage size by the block header, which includes these sub-elements: Version: The cryptocurrency version being used.

Previous block hash: Contains a hash encrypted number of the previous block's header. Hash Merkle root: Hash of transactions in the Merkle tree of the current block. Time: A timestamp to place the block in the blockchain. Bits: The difficulty rating of the target hash, signifying the difficulty in solving the nonce. Nonce: The encrypted number that a miner must solve to verify the block and close it.

One bit number in the header is called a nonce—the mining program uses random numbers to "guess" the nonce in the hash. When a nonce is verified, the hash is solved when the nonce, or a number less than it, is guessed. Then, the network closes that block, generates a new one with a header, and the process repeats. Different mechanisms are used to reach a consensus; the most popular for cryptocurrency is proof-of-work PoW , with proof-of-stake PoS becoming more so because of the reduced energy consumption compared to PoW.

Mining's Relationship to Blocks Mining is the term used for solving the number that is the nonce, the only number that can be changed in a block header. It is also the process the cryptocurrency's network uses if proof-of-work is used in the protocol. Cryptocurrency mining is commonly thought to be a complex mathematical problem; it is actually a random number generated through hashing.

Hashing is the process of encrypting information using the encryption method a cryptocurrency uses. For example, Bitcoin uses SHA for its encryption algorithm. For a miner to generate the "winning" number, the mining program must use SHA to hash random numbers and place them into the nonce to see if it is a match.

Solving the random number hash under the proof-of-work protocol is what takes so much energy and computational power. An extensive network of miners and enough energy to power a small country is needed to keep it going. The difficulty lies in that all previous block headers are encrypted randomly.

Hence, the current block header is a randomly generated encrypted number based on the randomly generated encrypted numbers of previous blocks and information from the current block.

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Blockchain Data Structure Concepts


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