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### Investing op amp circuit formulas From the expression of the voltage gain of a non-inverting op-amp, it is clear that the gain will be unity when Rf = 0 or R1 → ∝. To study the following op-amp circuits. 1. Inverting amplifier Let amplifier to be designed with a gain of (), select input resistance R1=10kΩ. Minimizes the effects of opamp open gain variation; Suppresses distortion. Widens the Region (Bandwidth) Where the Gain of the Amplifier Circuit Becomes. YAGUCHI WATER SPORTS REVIEW BETTING

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We will make a 2V input in the op-amp. We will configure the op-amp in noninverting configuration with 3x gain capabilities. We selected the R1 resistor value as 1. R2 is the feedback resistor and the amplified output will be 3 times than the input. Voltage Follower or Unity Gain Amplifier As discussed before, if we make Rf or R2 as 0, that means there is no resistance in R2, and Resistor R1 is equal to infinity then the gain of the amplifier will be 1 or it will achieve the unity gain.

As there is no resistance in R2, the output is shorted with the negative or inverted input of the op-amp. As the gain is 1 or unity, this configuration is called as unity gain amplifier configuration or voltage follower or buffer. As we put the input signal across the positive input of the op-amp and the output signal is in phase with the input signal with a 1x gain, we get the same signal across amplifier output.

Thus the output voltage is the same as the input voltage. So, it will follow the input voltage and produce the same replica signal across its output. This is why it is called a voltage follower circuit. The input impedance of the op-amp is very high when a voltage follower or unity gain configuration is used.

Sometimes the input impedance is much higher than 1 Megohm. So, due to high input impedance, we can apply weak signals across the input and no current will flow in the input pin from the signal source to amplifier. On the other hand, the output impedance is very low, and it will produce the same signal input, in the output. In the above image voltage follower configuration is shown. The output is directly connected across the negative terminal of the op-amp.

The gain of this configuration is 1x. Due to high input impedance, the input current is 0, so the input power is also 0 as well. The voltage follower provides large power gain across its output. Due to this behavior, Voltage follower used as a buffer circuit. Also, buffer configuration provides good signal isolation factor. Due to this feature, voltage follower circuit is used in Sallen-key type active filters where filter stages are isolated from each other using voltage follower op-amp configuration.

There are digital buffer circuits also available, like 74LS, 74LS etc. As we can control the gain of the noninverting amplifier, we can select multiple resistors values and can produce a non-inverting amplifier with a variable gain range. Non-inverting amplifiers are used in audio electronics sectors, as well as in scope, mixers, and various places where digital logic is needed using analog electronics.

The feedback through the RC network causes the Schmitt trigger output to oscillate in an endless symmetric square wave i. Inductance gyrator Simulates an inductor i. The circuit exploits the fact that the current flowing through a capacitor behaves through time as the voltage across an inductor. The capacitor used in this circuit is smaller than the inductor it simulates and its capacitance is less subject to changes in value due to environmental changes.

This circuit is unsuitable for applications relying on the back EMF property of an inductor as this will be limited in a gyrator circuit to the voltage supplies of the op-amp.

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Operational Amplifiers - Inverting Amp Configuration

#### When inputting a common-mode same voltage to the input pins of an opamp or comparator, with an ideal opamp no output voltage will be output, but in the case where an input offset voltage exists, a voltage will be output based on the input offset voltage. 